Jihad in the Qur’aan and Hadith

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As Salaamu Alaikum Warahmatullaahi Wabarakhaatuhu

This article is for informational purposes.

Was Salaamu Alaikum Warahmatullaahi Wabarakhaatuhu

The Command To Fight:

Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah knows, while you know not” (al Baqara 216)

And fight in the cause of Allah and know that Allah is Hearing and Knowing” (al Baqara 244)

And if it were not for Allah checking [some] people by means of others, the earth would have been corrupted, but Allah is full of bounty to the worlds” (al Baqara 251)

Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth [i.e., Islam] from those who were given the Scripture – [fight] until they give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled

(al Tawba 29)

Imam Al Haleemi in Suab al Iman:

Allah clarified that if it weren’t for Allah checking the nonbelievers through the believers and giving the believers authority to protect Islam and break the armies of disbelief, disbelief would have reigned on earth and the true religion would have been eliminated. This proves that the reason for the survival of religion (i.e., Islam) is Jihad and whatever is in this status deserves to be a pillar of Iman.

On the authority of Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), the Messenger of Allah (Salallaahu Alaihi Wasalaam) said: “I have been ordered to fight against the people until they testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establish the prayer and give the zakah. Then, if they do that, their blood and wealth will be protected from me – except in accordance with the right of Islam. And their reckoning will be with Allah, the Exalted” (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmithi, Nasa’i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, al-Bayhaqi, Ibn Habbaan, al-Darqutni, and Imam Malik)

It was narrated by Ibn Umar, Abu Huraira, Jabir Ibn Abdullah, Anas bin Malik, Jareer ibn Abdullah, Aus ibn Abu Aus, ibn Abbaas, Sahl ibn Saad, al-Numaan ibn Basheer, Tariq ibn Ashyam, Abu Bakrah, Muadh bin Jabal and Samura bin Jundub.

Thus, the hadith is Mutawatir, the absolute strongest form of Hadith.

Among a few interpretations Ibn Hajjar mentions the strongest is that people are fought to establish the dominance of Allah’s law. This objective can be met through many means. It could be met by fighting them. It can also be met by them accepting the law of Allah and paying the Jizyah. It can also be met by some sort of peace accord between Muslims and others, in which the non-Muslims will not oppose the word of Allah in any way.

Salamah bin Nufail said: While I was sitting with Rasulullah a man came to him and said, “O Messenger of Allah, Horses are being discarded and weapons are been laid down and some are claiming that there is no more fighting” Rasulullah said, “They are lying! Fighting has just begun! And a party of my Ummah will fight for the sake of Allah, and those who oppose them will not harm them. Allah will deviate the hearts of some men to provide for that party from them by fighting them. And they will continue fighting until the final hour starts (the Day of Judgment) and good will remain on the foreheads of horses until the day of Judgment and war will not end until Yagog and Magog come out.” Narrated by al Tabarani in Al Mujam al Kabir

A similar hadith was narrated by Imam al Nasa’i and is hasan (agreeable):

Salamah bin Nufail said: While I was sitting with Rasulullah a man came to him and said, “O Messenger of Allah Horses are being humiliated (ignored), and weapons are being laid down and people are claiming there is no more Jihad and war has ended” Rasulullah said: “They are lying! Fighting has just begun! Fighting has just begun! And a party of my Ummah will remain fighting on the true path and Allah will deviate the hearts of some men and Allah will provide the fighters from them until the final hour starts and the promise of Allah is fulfilled and good is on the foreheads of horses until the day of Judgment. It is being revealed to me that I will be departing you soon and you would follow me while you are fighting each other and the house of the believers is in al Shaam” (Shaam refers to Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Jordon. It could be used to refer to part or all of these countries. Narrated by Imam al Nasa’i and is hasan )

In the commentary on Al Nasa’i by al Sindi, he states that:

“‘Humiliating horses’ means ignoring them and belittling their importance or not using them for combat.

Now fighting has started now fighting has started’ The repetition is to reveal the importance of the message and it means that fighting is only increasing and that Allah has just prescribed it so how can it end so soon? Or it means that the real fighting has just begun because so far they have been fighting only within their territory, the land of the Arabs, but now is time for them to carry the battle to further lands.

Allah will deviate the hearts of some’ It means Allah will always provide this party of believers with men to fight even if it means deviating their hearts from Iman to Kufur. That is to bless these believers by providing them with the honor of fighting in his sake and the ultimate pleasure of pleasing Allah. Trans. Note: [In other words Allah will never deprive the Ummah from the opportunity of Jihad. Even if one were to assume that the whole world would become Muslim, Allah would deviate the hearts of some from Islam to disbelieve so that the Mujahideen can fight them]

Good is on the foreheads of horses,’ Means reward and booty, or honor and pride.

The house of the believers is al Shaam’ that is referring to the end of time. It will be the stronghold of Islam and the land of Jihad. ”

Anas narrates that the Messenger of Allah said: “Fight the nonbelievers with your wealth, arms, and tongues” (Sahih, al Nasa’i, Abu Dawud, Ahmad, and al Hakim)

With your tongues means hurt the non-believers by letting them hear what displeases them.

The Messenger of Allah said: “I have five commands for you: To Listen, to obey, to fight jihad, to make hijrah, and to stay with the jama’ah” (Tirmithi – Ahmad – AbdulRazaq (Hassan))

Ibn Abbaas narrates that the Messenger of Allah said, “There is no Hijrah after the opening of Makkah but there is Jihad and intentions and if you are called to fight then fight” (Bukhari and Muslim)

 

The Punishment Of Those Who Don’t Participate In Jihad:

Allah says:

Say [O Muhammad], “If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your relatives, wealth which you have obtained, commerce wherein you fear decline, and dwellings with which you are pleased, are more beloved to you than Allah and His Messenger and jihad in His cause then wait until Allah executes His command. And Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people”

(Tawbah 24)

In this ayah is a sufficient warning for anyone who leaves jihad with their selves and their wealth

Allah says:“O you who have believed, what is [the matter] with you that, when you are told to go forth in the cause of Allah, you adhere heavily to the earth? Are you satisfied with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But what is the enjoyment of worldly life compared to the Hereafter except a [very] little. If you do not go forth, He will punish you with a painful punishment and will replace you with another people, and you will not harm Him at all. And Allah is over all things competent”

(Tawbah 38-39)

Those who remained behind rejoiced at their staying [at home] after [the departure of] the Messenger of Allah and disliked to strive with their wealth and their lives in the cause of Allah and said, “Do not go forth in the heat.” Say, “The fire of Hell is more intense in heat”-if they would but understand. So let them laugh a little and [then] weep much as recompense for what they used to earn.”

(Tawba 81-82)

Ibn Umar narrates: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying, “If you trade in each, and follow the tails of cows, and became content with being farmers, and ignored jihad, Allah will impose on you a humiliation that would not be taken away until you go back to your religion.” (Abu Dawud – Authentic

The meaning of the hadith is that if people ignore jihad because of their involvement in agriculture and similar affairs, Allah will unleash upon them their enemies which would bring them humiliation which cannot be eliminated unless they go back to what is a duty upon them to start with and that is jihad against the non-believers, and being harsh and rough on them, and establishing religion to give Islam and its followers victory and to raise the word of Allah high and to humiliate disbelief and its followers. This hadith shows that leaving jihad is leaving Islam because the Messenger of Allah said: “until you go back to your religion”

Abu Hurairah narrates that the Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever dies and has not fought or had the intention of fighting dies on a branch of hypocrisy”37

Abu Umamah narrates that the Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever has not fought or prepared a fighter or taken care of a fighter in his absence, Allah will strike him with a disaster” Abu Dawud (Agreeable)

The Virtues Of Jihad:

Allah says:

Not equal are those believers remaining [at home] – other than the disabled – and the Mujahideen in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has preferred the Mujahideen through their wealth and their lives over those who remain [behind], by degrees. And to all, Allah has promised the best [reward]. But Allah has preferred the mujahideen over those who remain [behind] with a great reward. Degrees from Him and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.”

(Al Nisa 95-96)

Allah says:

So let those fight in the cause of Allah who sells the life of this world for the Hereafter. And he who fights in the cause of Allah and is killed or achieves victory – We will bestow upon him a great reward.”

(Al Nisa 74)

The ones who have believed, emigrated and striven in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives are greater in rank in the sight of Allah. And it is those who are the attainers [of success]. Their Lord gives them good tidings of mercy from Him and approval and of gardens for them wherein is enduring pleasure. Abiding therein forever. Indeed, Allah has with Him a great reward.”

(Al Tawba 20-22)

Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties [in exchange] for that they will have Paradise. They fight in the cause of Allah, so they kill and are killed. [It is] a true promise [binding] upon Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Quran. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? So rejoice in your transaction, which you have contracted. And it is that which is the great attainment.” (Al Tawba 111)

 

That Jihad Is The Greatest Deed Of All:

Amr bin Absah narrates: A man said O Messenger of Allah what is Islam? He said, “Islam is submission of your heart, and that the Muslims are safe from your tongue and your hands” He said: “What is the best of Islam?” The Messenger of Allah said, “Iman (Faith)” He said what is faith? The Messenger of Allah replied, “To believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His Messengers, and the resurrection after death” He said, “What is the best of Iman?” The Messenger of Allah said, “Hijrah” He said what is hijrah? The Messenger of Allah said, “To leave sins behind” He said, “What is the best of hijrah?” The Messenger of Allah said, “Jihad” He said what is the best of jihad? The Messenger of Allah said, “the one whose horse is slain and his blood is spilled” (Ahmad – al Tabarani – al Bayhaqi)

See, may Allah have mercy on you, how the Messenger of Allah made the best of the best of the best of Islam to be jihad, and then he made the best of jihad to be martyrdom.

 

Jihad Is The Most Beloved Deed To Allah:

Abdullah bin Salaam said we were a group of the companions of the Messenger of Allah and we said if we just knew what was the most beloved deed to Allah.

Allah then revealed:

Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth exalts Allah, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. O you who have believed, why do you say what you do not do? Great is hatred in the sight if Allah that you say what you do not do. Indeed, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in a row as though they are a [single] structure joined firmly”

(al Saff 1-4) (Tirmithi – al Bayhaqi – al Hakim – ibn al Mubarak)

 

The Mujahid Is The Greatest Of All People:

Allah has preferred the mujahideen over those who remain [behind] with a great reward Degrees from Him and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.” (Al Nisa 95-96)

Abu Said al Khudri narrates that the Messenger of Allah was asked, “Who is the best of people?” He said, “A believer who is making jihad with his life and his wealth in the cause of Allah” (Bukhari – Muslim)

 

No One Can Practice Any Act Of Worship Equivalent To Jihad:

Abu Hurairah narrates that the Messenger of Allah was asked about a deed equal in reward to jihad. He replied, “You cant do it” They asked again and then a third time, and every time the Messenger of Allah says, “You cant do it” Then he said, “The equivalent of the mujahid is the one who fasts and prays continuously without resting until the mujahid comes back!” (Muslim)

A man came to the Messenger of Allah and asked him about something to do equivalent to jihad. The Messenger of Allah said, “I don’t find any” Then he said, “When the mujahid leaves, can you enter into your masjid and pray and fast with no break?” The man said, “And who could do that!” (Bukhari)

 

The Pinnacle Of Islam Is Jihad:

Muadh bin Jabal narrates: We were with the Messenger of Allah returning from Tabook. He told me, “If you want I can tell you the head of the matter, its pillar and its peak,” I said yes O Messenger of Allah. He said, “The head of the matter is Islam, its pillar is Salah, and its peak is jihad” (al Hakim – Ahmad – al Tirmithi – ibn Majah)

 

The Mujahid Is Given A Guarantee By Allah:

Abu Huraira narrates: The Messenger of Allah said, “Allah has guaranteed the mujahid, who leaves from his home with no purpose but to fight in the cause of Allah and believing in Allah’s words, Allah has guaranteed for him either to enter him into Paradise or to return him home with reward or booty” (Bukhari and Muslim)

 

The Virtues Of Encouraging Jihad:

Allah says:

So fight, [O Muhammad], in the cause of Allah; you are not held responsible except for yourself. And encourage the believers [to join you] that perhaps Allah will restrain the might of those who disbelieve. And Allah is greater in might and stronger in punishment” (al Nisa 84)Allah says:

O Prophet, urge the believers to battle. If there are among you twenty steadfast, they will overcome two hundred. And if there are among you one hundred steadfast, they will overcome a thousand of those who have disbelieved because they are people who do not understand” (al Anfal 65)

The Virtue Of Racing Towards Jihad:

Allah says:

And the forerunners, the forerunners. Those are the ones brought close to Allah”

(al Waqi’ah 10-11)

Uthman bin Abi Sawdah said we where told that the forerunners mentioned in the verses are the first to go out on jihad and the first to go to Salah. (Ibn Abi Shaybah (authentic))

Al Hassan bin Abi al Hassan said that the Messenger of Allah sent an army and among them was Muadh bin Jabal. He was late in going out with the army so the Messenger of Allah saw him and said: “I see that your company are one month ahead of you in Paradise!” Muadh said: “O Messenger of Allah I only stayed behind in order to catch the prayer with you and so that you can make dua for me in order to make me ahead of my company in rewards!” The Messenger of Allah said: “No, they are ahead of you. Go and catch up with them” Then he said: “A journey in the morning in the cause of Allah is better than the world and everything on it, and a journey at the end of the day in the cause of Allah is better than the world and everything on it” (al Sunan)

Abu Hurairah narrated: The Messenger of Allah said, “Whoever goes out in his cause with no purpose but to fight in his sake and believing in Him and His Messengers, Allah will guarantee for him to either enter him into Paradise or to return him home with rewards or booty. In the name of whom Muhammad’s soul is in His hand, whoever is injured in the path of Allah, the injury would come on the Day of Judgment as it was in this world, the color is that of blood and the smell is that of musk. In the name of whom Muhammad’s soul is in His hand, if it wasn’t for making things difficult on Muslims I wouldn’t have stayed behind any army leaving in the path of Allah. But I am unable to find sustenance for the Muslims who stay behind and they have nothing and it is difficult for them for me to leave them. In the name of whom Muhammad’s soul is in His hand, I wish I could fight in the cause of Allah and then be killed and then fight and then be killed and then fight and then be killed” (Muslim)

Saad bin AbdulAziz said Abu Muslim al Khawlani died in the territory of the Romans during the reign of Mu’awyah. He told Bisr bin Arta’ah (a companion who was the leader of their army): “Appoint me as the Amir (leader) over the dead and hand me the banner of war and make my grave the closest of all the graves of the martyrs to the enemy. I want to be resurrected on the Day of Judgment carrying the banner of war leading the martyrs.” (Ibn Asakir)

 

The Virtues Of The Dust In The Path Of Allah:

The Messenger of Allah of Allah said: “Whoever has his feet dirty in the path of Allah, Allah will save him from Hellfire” (Bukhari)

Abu Dardaa narrated: The Messenger of Allah said: “Allah will not combine in the lungs of His servant the dust of the path of Allah with the smoke of Hellfire, and whoever gets his feet dirty in the path of Allah, Allah will keep him away from Hellfire the distance of 1000 years travel for a fast horse, and whoever is injured in the path of Allah will receive the seal of martyrdom. The injury comes on the Day of Judgment with the color of saffron and the smell of musk. It is a sign that would be recognized by the all the creation, the beginning and the end. They will say: “He has the stamp of martyrs.” And whoever fights in the path of Allah for a period equivalent to the time it takes to milk a camel is guaranteed Paradise” (Ahmad)

 

The Virtue Of Fear In The Path Of Allah:

Salman said: “If the heart of the believer trembles in the path of Allah that would shake down his sins just like the shaking of a cluster of dates” (Ibn al Mubarak – ibn Abu Shaybah – Tabarani (Mawqoof))

Abdullah bin Amr bin al Aas narrated: The Messenger of Allah said: “Any expedition that fights in the path of Allah and win or come back safe have already received two thirds of their rewards. While an army that looses, feels fear and is hurt have their entire reward reserved for them” (Muslim)

 

The Virtues Of Standing In The Ranks On The Battlefield:

Allah says:

Indeed, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in a row as though they are a [single] structure joined firmly.” (Al Saff 4)

Sahl bin Saad al Sa’idi narrated: The Messenger of Allah said: “Two moments, Allah opens in them the gates of the heavens and when that happens hardly ever would a prayer be rejected: During the call to prayer and when the armies line up their ranks” (Abu Dawud)

Imran bin Haseen narrated: The Messenger of Allah said: “Standing in the ranks of the army in the battlefield is better to Allah than the worship of sixty years” (Al Hakim (authentic according to al Bukhari rules and agreed by al Thahabi))

Abdullah bin Amr said: Shall I tell you about the best martyr on the Day of Judgment? That is the one who stands in the ranks on the battlefield and when they face the enemy he does not turn left or right. Rather he carries his sword and says: “O Allah! Today I hand over to you my soul to make up for my past days!” and then he is killed. That person is among the martyrs who now lay down in the high rooms of Paradise wherever they wish!” (Ibn al Mubarak)

 

The Virtues Of Providing For The Fighters In Allah’s Path And Taking Care Of Their Families:

Abu Saeed al Khudri said the Messenger of Allah sent an army to Bani Lahyan. He said from every two men one goes out. Then He told the ones staying behind: “Whoever of you takes care of his brother’s family until he comes back would receive half the reward of those who went out” (Muslim)

The Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever provides for a fighter in the cause of Allah has actually fought, and whoever takes care of the family of a fighter has actually fought” (Bukhari – Muslim)

Ibn Masood said: “For me to equip a fighter with a whip is better to me than making hajj” (Ibn al Mubarak – ibn Abi Shaybah)

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